True Random Number Service

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Source Purity Statistics

RANDOM.ORG generates true randomness via atmospheric noise. This page shows the source purity statistics.

Showing graphs from

(Each graph is from a different radio. Click on the graphs to enlarge them.)

The graphs on this page gives an indication of how good the raw random data used by RANDOM.ORG is. Any source of raw randomness may be biased (skewed) towards 0 or 1, meaning that more 0s occur in the data than 1s or vice versa. An important part of generating true random numbers is to perform skew correction on the raw random data, i.e., remove any such skew. The graphs on this page show how close to unskewed the raw random data used by RANDOM.ORG is. If this data is perfectly unskewed, even before process, you will see a purity rating close to 100%. If there is skew in the data, you will see a lower rating. However, even if the raw data is skewed, the skew correction algorithm will correct it, and the skew will not appear in the processed data.

Each graph shows how a given radio performed on a particular day. New graphs are generated automatically shortly after midnight (UTC) every day. Each radio has its own name (e.g., copenhagen-hw0), and each graph is labelled with the name of the radio to which it belongs. Not all radios are active on all days.

RANDOM.ORG uses a skew correction algorithm devised by John von Neumann, which considers the bits from the raw source in pairs. If the two bits in the pair are identical (i.e., 00 or 11), both bits are discarded. If the two bits are different (i.e., 01 or 10), the first bit is added to the stream of processed bits. This is a very simple algorithm, but it isn't very efficient because it results in the loss of three quarters of the raw random data, even if the source is already perfectly unskewed.